PAKISTAN ARMY TILL 1965
Major Agha H Amin (Retired)
The Pakistan Army in 1965 had the potential keeping in view its equipment, particularly tanks and artillery,vis a vis the state of Indian Armour and Artillery to inflict a decisive defeat on India.
Poor Military leadership at the higher level in the final reckoning stands out as the principal cause of failure of the Pakistan Army to inflict a decisive military defeat on India.
Ayub Khan was directly responsible for the leadership failure of the Pakistan Army.Conversely it was superior equipment and in particular tanks and artillery apart from the BRB in the Ravi-Sutlej Corridor which enabled Pakistan to contain the Indians despite their considerable numerical superiority in infantry.
Valour,Morale,Motivation played a part,but we must remember that valour alone did not save the Poles from being overrun by the Russians and Germans repeatedly during the period from late 18th Century till 1939!
Valour did not save the Serbians from being over run by the German-AustrianBulgarian force in WW One.The tragedy of the Pakistan Army was that it failed to achieve even 50 % of what it was capable of achieving and only because of Qualitative reasons.
The definite edge over equipment was lost after 1965 and in 1971 Pakistan was saved largely because of the fact that Indian superiority in infantry coupled with superior equipment was divided between the Eastern and Western Fronts.
The year 1965 was crucial and Providence gave an opportunity to Pakistan to achieve something militarily.
The Seeds of defeat were sowed long before partition and the seal of mediocrity was laid once the Ayub-Musa duo headed the army during the period 1951-1965!
The Indian Army was handicapped because of an indifferent political leadership.Racially both the armies were largely similar and only fools can think that one was inherently braver than the other!
Long ago Hobbes had rightly said; "Nature hath made men so equal,in the faculties of the body and mind;as that though there be found one man sometimes manifestly stronger in body or quicker of mind than another; yet when all is reckoned together,the difference between man is not so considerable,as that one man can thereupon claim to himself any benefit to which another may not pretend as well as he " . 126
The Pakistanis failed to do as well as they potentially could in 1965 ,keeping in view the on ground tangible realities,because in terms of intangible qualities ,by virtue of a common historical experience;they were as qualitatively mediocre as the Indians!
My service in Pakistan Army from 1981 to 1994,and an intense study of Sub Continental Military history, has reinforced this conviction that I first developed as a student of Forman Christian College Lahore during the period 1977-1978!The rest is Fiction!
126 Page-140-Great Traditions in Ethics-An Introduction-Ethel.M.Albert,Thedore.C.Denise and Sheldon.P.PeterfreundAmerican Book Company-San Francisco-1975.